Enraf-Academy Introduction Note
- Users of Enraf-Nonius treatment devices must be trained in how to use the system properly and have the appropriate skills.
- Any treatment instructions regarding treatment location, duration and strength require medical knowledge and should only be given by authorised doctors, therapists and health professionals. It is imperative that these instructions are followed.
- Before using Enraf-Nonius equipment, read, understand and practice the instructions for use. Know the limitations and hazards associated with using the device. Also observe the precautionary and operational decals placed on the unit.
Tecar Therapy - Deep Heat Therapy
From Tecarpuls-II Therapy Book (art. nr. 1731761-40)
Download the Therapy Book
Electrotherapy in the high-frequency range
The therapeutic application of electrical and magnetic or electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 300 kHz – 300 GHz is known as electrotherapy in the HF range. However, only a few narrow frequency bands are permitted for medical applications in the frequency range indicated. What are known as ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) bands are those in the
Microwave range 890 – 949 MHz and 2400 – 2500 MHz;
Decimetric wave (UHF) range in Europe 433.92 MHz +/ – 0.2%;
Radiofrequency (RF) range
● 13.56 MHz +/ – 0.05%
● 27.12 MHz +/ – 0.6%
● 40.98 MHz +/ – 0.05%.
The table lists the electrotherapy methods in the high-frequency range currently used.
The most important physiological and therapeutic effect of high-frequency electrotherapy is the heat effect. Effects on the molecular and cellular level as well as the effect in the case of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic fields are additionally discussed.
In the case of the form of electrotherapy in the high-frequency range examined below, the thermal effect is clearly predominant. This is caused by the conversion of electrical energy into heat in the tissue treated.
Because of the electrical properties, tissue acts like a dielectric of a capacitor with ohmic losses which are converted into heat for therapeutic use in the tissue. The electrical output converted into heat in the tissue is crucial for the therapeutic effect.
This means that a tissue with significant electrical conductivity (low resistance) will be heated less than tissue with low electrical conductivity (high resistance).
Perpendicular to the electrical field is the magnetic field for which body tissues represent practically no resistance such that it flows through the various tissues without any losses. Perpendicular to the field lines of the magnetic field, however, an induced electrical field (eddy currents) develops which is weakened in the tissue through absorption.
In accordance with the electrical properties of the tissue, these induced eddy currents preferentially develop in highly conductive tissues where they are of course also absorbed, more likely resulting in a heating of the highly conductive muscles here. In high frequency, electromagnetic fields lead to a rotation of biological dipoles, thus amphoteric molecules, which have both positive and negative charges and which are outwardly electrically neutral. The rotation generates heat through friction and thus the biological effect is based primarily on a heating of the tissue according to its electrical properties.
In addition, the electrical potentials of a few mV on the cell membranes also generate a low flow of electrical currents such that a latent activation of the cell membranes can also be assumed. Possible nonthermal effects could be based on mechanisms of this type, thus on biological effects, such as the acceleration of metabolic and healing processes.
The Tecarpuls-II device, with frequencies of 460 kHz and 540 kHz, is in the lower range of high-frequency therapy. The Tecarpuls-II is a long-wave therapy device.
The Tecarpuls-II device forms an electrical field in the tissue between the two plate capacitors which are attached as electrodes to the surface of the body. A current flows between the capacitor plates. An alternating field, as in the Tecarpuls-II device, is what is known as a displacement current because the tissue connects the two plates as a conductive medium. In this case, the size of the current depends on the conductivity of the tissue.
The various tissue structures act according to their electrical conductivity as ohmic resistances. Since the subcutaneous fat tissue is upstream of the conductive tissues and has a lower conductivity, the energy conversion there becomes particularly high under the therapy electrode as a result of the energy concentration. In the body, the current then follows the paths of good conductivity, such as the muscle tissue. Current flows around tissues with low conductivity, such as the internal organs, which are surrounded by a protective layer of fat, or cells, since they are surrounded by a poorly conductive membrane.
The heating takes place in deeper layers without subjecting internal organs to thermal stress.
The Tecarpuls-II has two modes for different areas of application:
- Capacitive mode for superficial structures, such as muscles
- Resistive mode for application to deeper structures, such as tendons, ligaments
- Stimulation of the heat receptors through heating of tissues (reduction)
- Local increase in perfusion and circulation of blood through vascular dilatation
- Local improvement in flow properties of joint fluid
- Improvement in elasticity of the connective tissue
- Improvement in trophicity, also of bradytrophic tissue
- Reduction in tension and relief of/reduction in pain
- Accelerated repair mechanisms through increased metabolic rate
- Increase in resorption
Tecar Therapy Contra-Indications
General information on contraindications
- Only for use on adults
- Remove patient's hearing aid(s) before treatment.
- Tecarpuls should not be used for:
- Treatment of intracranial disorders of a physical or mental nature.
- Treatment at the very top of the neck-skull transition (cervical-occipital transition)
- Patients with pacemaker,
- Patients with bleeding gastrointestinal ulcers
- Patients with an infusion pump and implants with electric lead
- First 6 months of pregnancy. Treatment last trimester - do not treat over the stomach and lower back (directly over the fetus)
- Treatment over localized cancer area/tumor
- Treatment over local tuberculosis cavity
- Allergic reaction to cream / probe
- Treatment of deep vein thrombosis
- Treatment over the heart in patients with ischemic heart disease, local pulmonary embolism
- Bleeding areas where the skin has partial or open wounds
- Patients with impaired skin / neuropathy sensitivity. Avoid treatment in patients with reduced skin sensibility in the area to be treated, unless the treatment is specifically recommended by the patient's physician. If the treatment is to be used, test on the corresponding fresh body part. This is to avoid tissue overheating.
- Patients with a bacteriological inflammation (can treat around the area)
- Diabetes mellitus: Patients with diabetes can often have neuropathy (see above)
- Other conditions with reduced skin sensation:
- Patients coming in from the cold
- Post-operative patients
Please consult the Instructions for Use for more information on indications and contra-indications and for warnings and recommendations.
The above indications and contra-indications originated from the Tecarpuls Instructions for Use 1730752-41.
TecarTherapy References and Literature
- Edel, H.: Fibel der Elektrodiagnostik und Elektrotherapie, Verlag Gesundheit GmbH, Berlin 1991
- Stroppe, H.: Physik, VEB Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1974
- Lunze, K.: Einführung in die Elektrotechnik, VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin 1973
- Drexel, H. u. A.: Physikalische Medizin, Bd. 4 Elektro- und Lichttherapie, Hippokrates-Verlag, Stuttgart 1988
- Gillert, Rulffs, Boegelein: Elektrotherapie, Pflaum Verlag, Munich 1995