Tecar Therapy - Deep Heat Therapy
From Tecarpuls-II Therapy Book (art. nr. 1731761-40)
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Electrotherapy in the high-frequency range
The therapeutic application of electrical and magnetic or electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 300 kHz – 300 GHz is known as electrotherapy in the HF range. However, only a few narrow frequency bands are permitted for medical applications in the frequency range indicated. What are known as ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) bands are those in the
Microwave range 890 – 949 MHz and 2400 – 2500 MHz;
Decimetric wave (UHF) range in Europe 433.92 MHz +/ – 0.2%;
Radiofrequency (RF) range
● 13.56 MHz +/ – 0.05%
● 27.12 MHz +/ – 0.6%
● 40.98 MHz +/ – 0.05%.
The table lists the electrotherapy methods in the high-frequency range currently used.
The most important physiological and therapeutic effect of high-frequency electrotherapy is the heat effect. Effects on the molecular and cellular level as well as the effect in the case of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic fields are additionally discussed.
In the case of the form of electrotherapy in the high-frequency range examined below, the thermal effect is clearly predominant. This is caused by the conversion of electrical energy into heat in the tissue treated.
Because of the electrical properties, tissue acts like a dielectric of a capacitor with ohmic losses which are converted into heat for therapeutic use in the tissue. The electrical output converted into heat in the tissue is crucial for the therapeutic effect.
This means that a tissue with significant electrical conductivity (low resistance) will be heated less than tissue with low electrical conductivity (high resistance).
Perpendicular to the electrical field is the magnetic field for which body tissues represent practically no resistance such that it flows through the various tissues without any losses. Perpendicular to the field lines of the magnetic field, however, an induced electrical field (eddy currents) develops which is weakened in the tissue through absorption.
In accordance with the electrical properties of the tissue, these induced eddy currents preferentially develop in highly conductive tissues where they are of course also absorbed, more likely resulting in a heating of the highly conductive muscles here. In high frequency, electromagnetic fields lead to a rotation of biological dipoles, thus amphoteric molecules, which have both positive and negative charges and which are outwardly electrically neutral. The rotation generates heat through friction and thus the biological effect is based primarily on a heating of the tissue according to its electrical properties.
In addition, the electrical potentials of a few mV on the cell membranes also generate a low flow of electrical currents such that a latent activation of the cell membranes can also be assumed. Possible nonthermal effects could be based on mechanisms of this type, thus on biological effects, such as the acceleration of metabolic and healing processes.
The Tecarpuls-II device, with frequencies of 460 kHz and 540 kHz, is in the lower range of high-frequency therapy. The Tecarpuls-II is a long-wave therapy device.
The Tecarpuls-II device forms an electrical field in the tissue between the two plate capacitors which are attached as electrodes to the surface of the body. A current flows between the capacitor plates. An alternating field, as in the Tecarpuls-II device, is what is known as a displacement current because the tissue connects the two plates as a conductive medium. In this case, the size of the current depends on the conductivity of the tissue.
In accordance with the physical properties and the conductive behavior of the various tissues, the higher frequency (540 kHz) is thus described as capacitive and the lower frequency (460 kHz) is described as resistive.
The various tissue structures act according to their electrical conductivity as ohmic resistances. Since the subcutaneous fat tissue is upstream of the conductive tissues and has a lower conductivity, the energy conversion there becomes particularly high under the therapy electrode as a result of the energy concentration. In the body, the current then follows the paths of good conductivity, such as the muscle tissue. Current flows around tissues with low conductivity, such as the internal organs, which are surrounded by a protective layer of fat, or cells, since they are surrounded by a poorly conductive membrane.
The heating takes place in deeper layers without subjecting internal organs to thermal stress.
The Tecarpuls-II has two modes for different areas of application:
- Capacitive mode for superficial structures, such as muscles
- Resistive mode for application to deeper structures, such as tendons, ligaments
- Stimulation of the heat receptors through heating of tissues (reduction)
- Local increase in perfusion and circulation of blood through vascular dilatation
- Local improvement in flow properties of joint fluid
- Improvement in elasticity of the connective tissue
- Improvement in trophicity, also of bradytrophic tissue
- Reduction in tension and relief of/reduction in pain
- Accelerated repair mechanisms through increased metabolic rate
- Increase in resorption
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